Plants whose common names begin M-R

Listed here are a number of plants we know were cultivated for food, medicine, and other helpful applications.
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Plants whose common names begin A-C
Plants whose common names begin D-L
Plants whose common names begin S-Z
Notes about the following tables:
Use: MD – medicinal, CUL – culinary, FRA – fragerance, BEA – beauty, DYE – dyeing, STR – strewing, REP – repellant

Size: S- short, M- medium, T- tall

Source: Fr – Freeman, F- Frommand (c. 1525)in Landsberg, G- Gardener(c. 1350) in Landsberg, B- Bunney, L- Landsberg

Garden and Herber Plants M-R

Common Name Latin Name Color Type Size Season Use Notes Source
Madder Rubia tinctorium yellow flowers plant . flowers June-Aug Dye . B
Mallow, Common Malva sylvestris purple flower plant T flowers June onward Cul , FrBF
Mandrake Mandragora officinarum . . . . Md . Fr
Maple Acer campestre , tree , , , , L
Marigold, Corn Chrysanthemum segetum . . . summer flowers . . LB
Marigold, Pot Calendula officinalis yellow – orange flowers plant s flowers June-Sept Cul
Md
, FrFB
Marjoram, Wild (Oregano) Origanum vulgare purple flowers plant m/t flowers July-Sept Cul . FrFB
Marjoram, Sweet Origanum majorana purple flowers plant m/t flowers June Cul
Fra
Bea
, FB
Masterwort Peucedanum ostruthium white flowers plant s/m flowers July-Aug Cul . FB
Medlar Mespilus germanica , tree , , Cul , L
Melons Cucumis melo . . . . Cul
Fra
Bea
. F
Mint Mentha spp blue/pink flowers plant m/t flowers June – July Cul , FrFB
Monkshood (Aconite) Aconitum napellus purple/blue flower plant . flowers May-June . . B
Mouse-ear , , , , , Md , G
Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris red stem yellow flower plant . flowers Aug-Sept Cul . FB
Mulberry , , tree , , Cul , L
Mulberry, Black Morus nigra . tree . . . . .
Mullein Verbascum thapsus yellow flower , 5-6 ft flowers July , , B
Mustard Sinapis alba yellow flower plant m/t Flowers May onward Cul . LB
Myrtle Myrtus communis , tree , , Md , Fr
Nettle, Stinging Urtica dioica , , , , Cul , ,
Nettle, Red Lamium purpureum . . . . Cul . F
Nettle, Red Dead , , , , , Cul , F
Nightshade, Black Solanum nigrum . plant . . . . .
Oak Quercus robur , tree , flowers Apr-May , , LB
Oculus Christi . . . . . Cul . F
Onion, Bulb Allium cepa white flower plant tall flowers June-July Cul , FB
Onion, Everyready Allium cepa, var. perutila . . . . . . .
Orach (Fat Hen) Atriplex hortensis yellow/green flower plant m/t flowers June-Sept Cul , FB
Origan (Wild Marjoram) Origanum vulgare . . . . . . L
Orpine Sedum telephium , , , , Md , G
Parsley, Plain-leaved Petroselinum crispum yellow/green flower plant tall flowers June-Aug Cul . FrFB
Parsnip Pastinaca sativa , , , , Cul , FL
Patience . . . . . Cul . F
Pea Pisum sativum , , , , Cul , L
Peach Prunus persica . tree . . . . F
Pear Pyrus communis , tree , , Cul Jargonelle, Wardon, Black Worcester L
Pellitory . . . . . Cul . F
Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium , , , , , , F
Peony, Male Paeonia mascula . bush . May flowers . . B
Peony, Roman Paeonia officinalis red or white flower h’ous , May-June flowers Cul
Md
, FrFB
Pepperwort . . . . . Cul . F
Periwinkle vinca minor white flower plant s flowers Apr-July Fra , GB
Pimpernel . . . . . Md . G
Pimpernel, Scarlet Anagallis arvensis , , , , , , ,
Pine pinus sp. . tree . . . . F
Plantain, Ribwort Plantago lanceolata brownish flower plant s/m flowers Apr-Aug , , B
Plantain, Waybread Plantago major . . . May flowers Md . GB
Plum , , tree , , , , F
Polypody Polypodium vulgare fern plant . . Md . GB
Poppy, Corn Papavar rhoeas red flower plant , flowers June-Aug , , B
Poppy, Garden (Opium Poppy) Papavar somniferum white/lilac or red flower plant . flowers June-Aug Cul
Fra
Bea
. FB
Poppy, White , , , , , , , F
Primrose Primula vulgaris . plant s spring flowers Cul . FrFB
Purslane Portulaca oleracea , , , , Cul , F
Quince Cydonia oblonga white flower tree s May flowers Cul . FB
Radish Raphanus sativus white/pink fl;ower plant s flowers June-Aug Cul , FB
Rampion Campanula rapunculus . . . . Cul . F
Ramsoms Allium ursinum , , , , Cul , F
Rape Brassica napus .. .. .. .. Cul .. F
Rocket Eruca sativa white flower , , June flower Cul , FB
Rocket, Sweet Hesperis matronalis .. .. .. . Fra .. L
Rose, Burnet R. spinosissima, pimpinellifolia , , , , , , L
Rose, Field R. arvensis . . . . . . .
Rose, Red R. gallica var. officinalis red flower , , , Cul , F
Rose, Sweet Briar R. rubiginosa, eglanteria . . . . . . L
Rose, White R. x alba var. semi-plena white flower shrub , , Bea , F
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis blue flower shrub m May flowers Cul . FB
Rue Ruta graveolens yellow/green flower plant , flowers June-Sept Cul
Md
Rep
Str
, FB

 


 

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