Plants whose common names begin A-C

Medieval Gardens

In the middle ages, physicians, cooks, and housewives knew that herbs and plants had a variety of uses for keeping people healthy and the home clean.

Listed here are a number of plants we know were cultivated for food, medicine, and other helpful applications.

Back to Medieval Gardens
Plants whose common names begin D-L
Plants whose common names begin M-R
Plants whose common names begin S-Z
Notes about the following tables:
Use: MD – medicinal, CUL – culinary, FRA – fragerance, BEA – beauty

Size: S- short, M- medium, T- tall

Source: Fr – Freeman, F- Frommand (c. 1525) in Landsberg, G- Gardener (c. 1350) in Landsberg, B- Bunney, L- Landsberg

Garden and Herber Plants A-C

Common Name Latin Name Color Type Size Season Use Notes Source
Agrimony Agrimonia eupatoria yellow flowers plant 2.5 ft summer Cul
Md
. FrF
Alder Alnus glutinosa . tree m flowers
Mar-April
. . LB
Alexanders Smyrnium olusatrum . . . . Cul . F
Almond Prunus dulci white-pink flowers tree s flowers Mar-April Bea . FB
Anise Pimpinella anisum white flower plant m/t flowers July-Aug Cul . FrFB
Apple Pyrus malus . tree . . Cul Court Pendu Plat, Gennet Moyle, Catshead, Calville Blanche d’hiver, Winter Pearmain, Winter & Crimson Quenning L
Archangel (White Deadnettle) Lamium album white flower plant m/t flowers March on . . FB
Ash Fraxinus excelsior red-brown flowers tree . flowers Apr-May . . LB
Astrologia longa . . . . . Cul . F
A. rotunda . . . . . Cul . F
Avens (Bennet) Geum urbanum yellow flowers plant m/t flowers June-Aug Cul . FB
Balm Melissa officinalis pale-yellow to white to pale-blue flowers plant . flowers July to August Md . FrB
Basil Ocimum basilicum yellow pink or white flowers plant m/t flowers August Cul
Fra
Bea
. FrFB
Bay, Sweet Laurel nobilis . tree . . Cul . FrF
Bean, Broad Vicia faba . plant m/t . Cul . L
Beet, Leaf Beta vulgaris . . . . Cul . F
Betony Betonica officinalis red-purple flowers plant M/T flowers June-Sept Cul
Md
. FrFB
Birch Betula pendula . tree . Apr- May . . LB
Bluebell Endymion nonscriptus blue flowers plant m . . . L
Borage Borago officinalis bright blue flowers plant S/M flowers June Cul . FrFB
Box Buxus sempervirens white-green flowers evergreen shrub . flowers Mar-May . .. B
Bramble Rubus fruticosus white flowers shrub m flowers May-Aug . . LB
Broom Sarothamnus scoparius yellow flowers plant . flowers May-June . . LB
Bryony, White Bryonia dioica . . . . . . .
Bugle Ajuga reptans . plant . . . . F
Bugloss Anchusa officianalis . . . . Md . Fr
Burnet Sanguisorba officianalis . . . . Cul . F
Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata . . . . Cul . F
Calamint Calamintha sylvatica . . . . Cul . F
Camomile Chamaemelum nobile white w/yellow center flowers plant m/t flowers Jun-Sept Cul
Md
. FrFB
Camomile, Wild (scented Mayweed) Matricaria recutita white w/yellow center flowers plant m/t flowers May-June . . B
Campion, Red Melandrium album . . . . . . .
Campion, White Melandrium album . . . . . . .
Caraway Carum carvi white flower plant m/t flowers June-Jul Cul . FrFB
Carnation (pink) Dianthus caryophyllus . . . . Cul
Fra
Bea
. F
Carrot Daucus carota white flower plant m Flowers June on Cul . FB
Catmint (Nepp) Nepeta cataria purple white flowers plant M Flowers Jul-Sept Cul . FB
Celandine, Greater Chelidonium  majus yellow flowers plant . Flowers May-Aug Md . FrLB
Celery, Smallage or Celery Leaf Apium graveolens . . . . . . .
Centaury Erythraea centaurium rose red flowers plant m/t flowers Jun-Oct Md . GB
Chaste Tree Vitex Agnus-castus . plant m . Md . Fr
Cherry, Morello, Sour Prunus carasus vars. white pink flowers red fruit tree S Flowers May . . LB
Cherry, Sweet Prunus avium vars. white pink flowers red fruit tree S Flowers May . . LB
Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium . . . . Cul . F
Chestnut (Spanish) . . tree . . . . L
Chickweed Stellaria media . . . . Cul . F
Chickory (Succory) Cichorium intybus blue flowers plant . Flowers Jul-Oct . . B
Chives Allium schoenoprosum . . . . Cul . F
Clary Salvia sclarea white, purple, pink flowers plant m/t flowers August Cul . FrFB
Colchicum Colchicum autumnale . . . . Md . Fr
Colewort (Kale) Brassica oleracea . . . . Cul . F
Columbine Aquilegia vulgaris blue flowers shrub . late spring Cul
Md
. FrF
Comfrey Sympthyum officinale white flowers plant m/t flowers may-june Md/font> . GB
Coriander Coriandrum sativum white pink flowers plant . Flowers June Cul . FrFB
Corncockle Agrostemma githago white/yellow purple flowers plant T Flowers May-June . . LB
Cornflower Centaurea cyanus blue flowers h’ous . Flowers June-Aug . . FB
Cost . . . . . Cul . F
Costmary Chrysathemum balsamita . . . . Cul
Fra
. FrF
Cowslip Primula veris deep yellow flowers plant S/M Flowers Apr-May Bea . GB
Cress . . . . . Cul . F
Cress, French (Cress of Boleyn, American Cress) Barbarea vulgaris . . . . Cul . F
Cress, Garden Lepidium sativum . . . . . . .
Cuckoo Pint Arum maclatum . plant m . . . Fr
Cucumber (vegetable marrow) Cucumis sativus yellow flower vine, plant s/m flowers Jun-Sept Cul . FB
Cumin Cuminum Cyminum . plant m . Cul . Fr

 

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